Fentanyl continues to drive B.C. overdose spike: coroners service
|Montreal Gazette 20 Apr 2017 at 06:09|
The synthetic opioid fentanyl is drivinga massive increase in overdose deaths in British Columbia and men are dying in droves, according to a report from the B.C. Coroners Service.
More than83 per cent of the victims in the first three months of this year were men.
While overdose deaths that did not involvefentanyl have been stable at about 293 a year since 2011, total deaths due to overdose jumpedto 922 last year and the trendshows no sign of letting up in 2017.
“Illicit fentanyl-detected deaths appear to account for the increase in illicit drug overdose deaths since 2012,” the report said.
Samples of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine tested by Health Canada now routinely containfentanyl.
The coroner estimates339 people have died of overdose in the first three months of 2017. The 120 deaths in March represent the third-highest death toll for a single month on record in the province.
Chief coroner Lisa Lapointe said harm reduction measures are reversing thousands of overdoses, but long-term measures needed to stem the tide must include education at an early age and evidence-based treatment.
More than 20 overdose prevention sites for supervised IV drug use were set up across B.C. in December and January, attracting 67,000 visits. Up untilMarch, more than 1,000 overdose events were managed without a fatality, according to the B.C. Centre for Disease Control.
The death rate for men appears to be higher than the proportion of men in the opioid addict population which ranges from 65 to 80 per cent, according to Michael Krausz, a psychiatrist andUBC-Providence leadership chair for addiction research.
Men represent about two thirds of people who abuse alcohol and most other substances, but the highest proportion of men is among IV drug users.
“Even when men are not actively suicidalthey have a tendency for despair that puts them at greater risk of death,” he said. “They just don’t care if they die.”
Male IV drug users are also more likely to live alone and use drugs alone, which maycontribute to the high proportion of deaths.About half of all overdose deaths occur in private residences, according to the coroner.
“The level of isolation among men with mental health and addiction issues is higher than among women and we know that more men than women will be battling both,” said Krausz.
Unfortunately, the available data does not make it clear whether the people dying of overdose were in treatment for mental health issues or if they have attempted suicide before.
Last year, more than 3,900 people entered replacement therapy — programs that prescribe methadone or suboxone — for a total of about 19,000 in treatment.
“When women engage in treatment they are more likely to be successful than men. They stick to the rules and are not injecting street drugs on the side so much,” he said.
Understanding why men become addicted and die at higher rates than womenis essential to creating effective treatments and interventions for men at risk of overdose, Krausz said.