These suicidal aphids repair their home with their own bodily fluids
|sciencemag.org 15 Apr 2019 at 12:23|
The gall aphids home repair strategy gives new meaning to the phrase sweat equity. These insects use their own bodily fluids to patch holes in the walls of their colonys homea hollow growth called a gall that forms on the branches of trees where they set up shop. Once an invader pierces the gall, the aphid soldiers lay down beads of a thick, milky fluid from their abdomens and dont stop until they seal the breach. Some wring themselves dry until they are lifeless husks, others drown in their own secretions, and a few trap themselves outsideall to ensure the safety of their brethren inside the gall.
But scientists didnt know what this goop was made of or how the gall aphids (Nipponaphis monzeni) produced it. Now, researchers have untangled the biochemical recipe for the aphids natural building materials.
To study the aphids natural mortar, researchers first collected it from galls on winter hazel trees in Japan in spring, when they first form. When they put the fluid under the microscope, they discovered scores of what looked like blood cells packed with oily lipids. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence of the enzyme phenoloxidase, the amino acid tyrosine, and a previously unknown protein.
When mixed together by the aphid soldiers legs, the lipid-laden in about an hour, the researchers report today in the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
. Other bugs use these same ingredients to seal wounds and keep out infectionsbut in this species, theyre produced in mass quantities to defend the colony.
The authors say understanding how the gall aphids extreme teamwork evolved could offer insights into how natural selection leads to specialized social adaptations in other species. Their next step is to figureout how the aphids trick plants into forming galls in the first place. They plan to start with a close look at another of the aphids bodily fluidsits spit.