Poorer nations more focused on sustainability

Poorer nations  more focused on sustainability
"We want to know what development path countries are following and the challenges they face," explained Unesco s Dr Susan Schneegans.

The report also tracks progress towards meeting the United Nations (UN) sustainable development goals.

By analysing the research coming out of each country, it assesses how much progress is being made towards those targets. They were set by the UN in 2015 to ensure all countries work together to protect people s health, tackle poverty and to protect the planet.

In a wide-ranging and global study, the authors looked at 56 topics that they categorised as "sustainability research". These included investigations into ecological alternatives to plastic, developing crops to withstand our changing climate, clean water and renewable energy technologies.

Proportionately, developing countries were found to be publishing the most on those topics.

Developing economies tend to be most reliant on natural resources and are bearing the brunt of climate change, so, as Dr Schneegans explained, "it s more of a question of survival for them".

Floating plastic debris in the ocean was the topic which showed the fastest growth in research output - increasing from 46 publications in 2011 to 853 in 2019.

More broadly, spending on science worldwide increased by almost 20% between 2014 and 2018. The US and China account for nearly two-thirds of this increase, while four out of five countries in scientific research.

Unesco is calling for countries to invest more in research, something that Dr Scheeggans says has become even more urgent in the face of the Covid pandemic.

"We really need to think more about prevention," she told BBC News. "During the pandemic, we ve seen an emphasis on finding a cure, but it would be much better to have prevented the pandemic in the first place.

"The pandemic, its economic impacts, ecology - they re all linked. So every time we cut down part of a tropical forest, we re at risk of liberating new animal diseases.
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